Archives for posts with tag: Boer War

Once again it’s Friday, and yes, guest author time. I bring you another classic today. I was debating bringing you another Romantic writer, when I suddenly thought of Kipling and I had to bring him here. Like with many of these classics his reputation has seen up and downs, both because of his style, his opinions and subject matter. As usual I’ll offer you a brief biography, one of his best known poems, ‘If’ and links to information and his works.

Rudyard Kipling in his study, about this year

Rudyard Kipling in his study, about this year (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Biography:

Rudyard Kipling was born in Bombay (Mumbai today) on 30th December 1865. His father was an artist and teacher (taught sculpture) and he has talked about his memories of visiting the local markets with his sister Alice. Both he and Alice were sent to the UK in 1871, to live with a foster family, the Holloways, in Southsea. It seems the mother of the family was harsh and would beat him up regularly. He took refuge in reading, and particularly enjoyed Defoe, Wilkie Collins, Emerson and Bret Harte. During the winter he would spend a month at his aunt’s, Georgie, who was married to pre-Raphaelite painter Edward Burne Jones and their children. Luckily in 1877 his mother came to England and he was sent to boarding school in Devon, where he enjoyed school and showed promise for writing. (He also got some glasses as his eye-sight was very poor).

In 1882 he went back to India and worked as a journalist, also writing poetry and fiction in his spare time. He worked in the Civil and Military Gazette and later in The Pioneer. He wrote stories like ‘The Man Who Would Be King’ and ‘Gunga Din’ some of them collected in Plain Tales from the Hills that made him popular. In 1889 he went to live to London.

In 1892 he got married to Caroline Balestier, the sister of an American friend (and publisher. Henry James was a guest at their wedding). They travelled and settled in the US where they lived in Vermont. Their two daughters (Josephine and Elsie) were born there and he wrote The Jungle Book (1894) there too. Due to disagreements with his wife’s family (it seems a legal battle with his brother-in-law) they returned to England and settled in Sussex (initially Rottingdean). His son John was born in 1897.

In 1898 the family went on their first holiday to South Africa. A year later Josephine died of pneumonia (all the family suffered from it) and her death seriously affected Kipling. He became very involved in the Boer War efforts, visiting wounded soldiers and writing about the campaigns.

Other works of the period include Stalky and Co. (1899), Kim (1901) and Puck of the Pook’s Hill (1906). He wrote The Just So Stories for his daughter Josephine (she was 6 when she died).

Batemans, Sussex, England.

Batemans, Sussex, England. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Due to his popularity and the proximity of Rottingdean to Brighton he was constantly disturbed and sought a quieter place, purchasing Bateman’s, a XVIIc.  house in Burwash, East Sussex, where he lived the rest of his life. I have visited and I must say it’s a wonderful place, with a water mill and beautiful surroundings. I thoroughly recommend it.

He travelled widely, including trips to South Africa in winter.

During the First World War he visited the Western Front and wrote about it in France at War. His own son John was killed in 1915 when he was only 18 and serving with the Irish Guards. He found it very difficult to accept (it seems he had pulled some strings to get him accepted for military service as he was also short-sighted) and he wrote ‘The Irish Guards in the Great War’. He joined the Imperial War Graves Commission and it seems he chose a biblical phrase inscribed on many British war memorials: ‘Their Name Liveth For Evermore’. (From his poem ‘Recessional’:  ‘Lest we forget’ is often used in the same context.)

In 1922 he was named Lord Rector of the University of St Andrew’s in Scotland. He was sounded for both the Knighthood and to be Poet Laureate but turned both of them down, although he accepted the Nobel Prize in 1907. He was the first author in English to obtain the prize and the youngest.

He was concerned about the dangers Nazi Germany posed to England and gave an address on the subject ‘An undefended island’ to the Royal Society of St George in 1935.

He died of a brain haemorrhage on 18th January 1936 and is buried in the Poet’s Corner at Westminster Abbey (near T.S. Elliot). His study at the Elms, one of his houses in Rottingdean has been preserved, and as I mentioned Bateman’s is also open for visits (it is now a National Trust property).

English: The book poster for "The Jungle ...

English: The book poster for “The Jungle Book,” by writer Rudyard Kipling, published by The Century Company, New York, $1.50. Courtesy of the New York Public Library Digital Collection (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

I like this quote that I’ve borrowed from the Poetry Foundation page on Kipling (link below):

Writing in the Observer, Amit Chaudhuri remarks that the third volume of letters reveals “the contractions of a unique writer; a loving father and husband who was also deeply interested in the asocial, predominantly male pursuit of Empire; a conservative who succumbed to the romance of the new technology [the automobile]; an apologist for England for whom England was, in a fundamental and positive way, a ‘foreign country.'”

George Orwell called him: “the prophet of British Imperialism in its expansionist phase.”

Poems:

I had to share If with you, and particularly liked the note about it published on the Kipling’s organisation website:

‘This is probably the best known and loved poem by Kipling. He commented on the response to it in his autobiography:

Among the verses in Rewards was one set called `If–‘, which escaped from the book, and for a while ran about the world. They were drawn from Jameson’s character, and contained counsels of perfection most easy to give. Once started, the mechanization of the age made them snowball themselves in a way that startled me. Schools, and places where they teach, took them for the suffering Young – which did me no good with the Young when I met them later. (`Why did you write that stuff? I’ve had to write it out twice as an impot.’).They were printed as cards to hang up in offices and bedrooms; illuminated text-wise and anthologized to weariness. Twenty-seven of the Nations of the Earth translated them into their seven-and-twenty tongues, and printed them on every sort of fabric.’ (Something of Myself page 146)

Dr L. S. Jameson (1853-1917), friend and colleague of Cecil Rhodes, led the disastrous Jameson Raid of 1895 against the BoerRepublic of the Transvaal, after which he was tried and imprisoned but shortly afterwards released. He was later Prime Minister (1904-8) of the CapeColony. His friendship with the Kiplings figures in chapter 6 of Something of Myself.’

IF you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,
But make allowance for their doubting too;
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don’t deal in lies,
Or being hated, don’t give way to hating,
And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise:

If you can dream – and not make dreams your master;
If you can think – and not make thoughts your aim;
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
And treat those two impostors just the same;
If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,
And stoop and build ’em up with worn-out tools:

If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings
And never breathe a word about your loss;
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: ‘Hold on!’

If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with Kings – nor lose the common touch,
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you,
If all men count with you, but none too much;
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run,
Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it,
And – which is more – you’ll be a Man, my son!

Links:

Rudyard Kipling organisation (You can find information about him and his work and links to his work online. Great website):

http://www.kipling.org.uk/kip_fra.htm

Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudyard_Kipling

Biography.com:

http://www.biography.com/people/rudyard-kipling-9365581

Nobel-prize organisation:

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1907/kipling-bio.html

BBC historical figures site:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/kipling_rudyard.shtml

The Poetry Foundation:

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/rudyard-kipling

The Literature Network:

http://www.online-literature.com/kipling/

IMDB link for information on movies and TV series adaptations:

http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0456017/

Links to works:

Complete poems on line (Interestingly enough in this site he’s number 2 poet after Poe, who has been a guest, followed in third place by our friend and previous guest Robert Louis Stevenson):

http://www.poetryloverspage.com/poets/kipling/kipling_ind.html

Another site with links to his poems:

http://www.poemhunter.com/rudyard-kipling/

A few in Amazon (there are tonnes):

The Jungle Book:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0084B1T8Y/

Kim:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AHJCVW4/

The Man Who Would Be King:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00848SAL6/

The Second Jungle Book:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0082UOGOG/

The Works of Ruyard Kipling One Volume Edition:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B004TS0S7O/

Barrack Room Ballads:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B004UJHX8E/

Letters of Travel (1892-1913):

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B004UKC9IC/

As I said there are many more.

Thank you for reading, I hope you’ve enjoyed the post, and if you have, don’t forget to like, comment, share and especially CLICK! (is FREE!)

As you know Friday is usually the day to bring you a guest author. Whilst writing a post on Elizabeth Gaskell (and talking about BBC TV series) Sherlock Holmes came to mind, and I thought, yes, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. (I won’t enter into the debate of Conan Doyle being a composite name or Doyle alone being the surname, and Conan a middle name, that seems to be the generalised view, but I think it sounds good nonetheless). I should have thought about him before, as we share professions (he was a doctor, and evidently a writer) but…it’s never too late.

There are very thorough biographies, but I won’t go into a lot of detail and I’ll leave you links so you can expand at your leisure.

Conan_doyle

Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was born in Edinburgh of Irish descent. Due to his father’s problems with alcohol his childhood was quite disrupted and the family separated and were spread around Edinburgh. Thanks to wealthy relatives he was educated at several Jesuit schools including in Austria. He later studied Medicine in Edinburgh, training in a variety of locations including Birmingham and Sheffield (I also work in Sheffield!). While he was studying he started writing and published some of his work in magazines. He also wrote articles for the BMJ (British Medical Journal).

When he completed medical school and was fully qualified he worked as a doctor in a Greenland whaler and later worked as ship surgeon on the SS Mayumba (travelling to West coast of Africa). He completed his Doctorate in 1885.

He initially settled as a partner with another doctor in Plymouth but the partnership didn’t work out and with little money he moved to Portsmouth (where he also played football) and settled as General Practitioner. The business was very slow and he started writing to pass the time. He wrote short stories, some inspired by his time at sea, including a version of the mystery of the Marie Celeste that he would popularise.

He had some difficulty publishing his work and the first story to be published in 1886 was A Study in Scarlet where Sherlock Holmes and Watson appear for the first time (he sold rights for £25). It got good reviews and proved popular and other works with the same characters were later commissioned. It seems that several people who knew his university professor, Joseph Bell, recognised many of his characteristics in Sherlock Holmes (including Sir Robert Louis Stevenson…I guess I should invite him too).

He published The Sign of the Four a continuation of the story in 1890, but feeling exploited by the publishing company he left them and started writing for others including the Strand magazine.

Sherlock Holmes was not his only subject and amongst other things he collaborated with J.M. Barrie on a libretto (and somebody else for the list…).

Apart from the aforementioned football he was also a keen cricketer and golfer.

Sir_Arthur_Conan_Doyle_and_family

He married twice (his first wife died of Tuberculosis in 1906), and had 2 children from his first marriage and three from his second marriage, 2 daughters and 3 sons.

In 1890 he studied Ophthalmology in Vienna and settled to practice in London. He again said he did not have many clients and dedicated himself to writing.

English: Sherlock and Moriarty. From the Sherl...

English: Sherlock and Moriarty. From the Sherlock Holmes story ‘The Final Problem’ by Sidney Paget. http://camdenhouse.ignisart.com/canon/fina.htm (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

He told his mother in 1891 that he was thinking of killing Sherlock Holmes and she told him not to. He did in 1893 (or so it seemed). Due to public outrage he brought him back in the Hound of the Baskervilles in 1901 (although it was set before the Moriarty and Sherlock plunge into ReichenbachFalls in The Final Problem). In 1903 in The Adventure of the Empty House he explained how only Moriarty had fallen, but Holmes had faked his own death to fool his enemies. Sherlock appeared in 56 short stories and 4 novels by Doyle and in many stories by others (not to mention the many movie and TV adaptations).

He was interested in politics, wrote in defence of the UK actions in the Boer War in South Africa, (and he believed those writings got him the Knighthood). He also became a supporter of the Congo Free State campaign and wrote about it. (Some characters in The Lost World were inspired by his associates in the original campaign). He also stood for Parliament twice as a Liberal Unionist, but didn’t get elected.

Doyle also took an interest in miscarriages of justice and was involved in two successful appeals against convictions, in 1906 the case of George Edalji (beautifully narrated in the novel by Julian Barnes Arthur and George, 2005, that I wholeheartedly recommend) and in 1909 Oscar Slater. It is in part because of his efforts that the Court of Appeal was established in 1907.

Cottingley_Fairies_1

Following a number of tragic occurrences (death of his wife, of one of his sons in WWI, of his brother, two brothers-in-law and two nephews), he became quite depressed and found refuge in Spiritualism. He was a member of the Ghost Club were they sought to prove evidence of paranormal phenomena, and he was convinced that the photographs of the Cottingley fairies were true. He was friends with Harry Houdini who also believed in Spiritualism but spent much of his time proving many mediums were frauds.

He died of a heart attack on the 7th July 1930 in Crowborough, where he had lived for 23 years. Initially buried in a rose garden as he did not consider himself Christian he was reburied with his wife in 1940 in Minstead churchyard in the New Forest, Hampshire.

 

Links:

Biography:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Conan_Doyle

Official website for SirArthurConanDoyleLiteraryState (it offers an specially written biography):

http://www.sherlockholmesonline.org/

BBC History:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/conan_sir_arthur_doyle.shtml

Biography.com:

http://www.biography.com/people/arthur-conan-doyle-9278600

http://sirconandoyle.com/

Spartacus educational:

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Jconan.htm

Filmograhy:

IMDB:

http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0236279/

(I’ve already confessed how much I love the new modernised version of Sherlock Holmes from the BBC…)

Strand magazine

Free links to books:

The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0083Z12V0/

The Lost World

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B004UJDLJE/

The Adventure of the Devil’s Foot

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0082XIATK/

The Adventure of the Dying Detective

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0082XID88/

Tales of Terror and Mystery

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0082Z3DYA/

His Last Bow

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0082XIF5Y/

Sir Nigel

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0083Z9ZEQ/

The Great Boer War

http://www.amazon.com/The-Great-Boer-War-ebook/dp/B00846R62C/

The Sign of the Four

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0082XO4JU/

The Valley of Fear

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0082RVDYU/

There are many other works at very low prices and many stories on line also.

Thank you for reading, and as always, if you have enjoyed it, please, like, comment, share, and CLICK! It’s FREE!

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